aYChr-DB: a database of ancient human Y haplogroups. (2020)

Our newest paper wraps up all the information of ancient Y Eurasian haplogroups. We curated the data from the literature, cleaned them, organized them, corrected them, and annotated them. We created temporal plots to show how haplogroup frequencies changed over time.

Figure 1 from Freeman et al. (2020)

Amazingly, even with such a straightforward project, we ran into a “gatekeeper” in the form of a frustrated reviewer who is an “expert in the field” who demanded that we would “significantly reduce” the information on our paper, probably so that THEY can say it first. This reviewer demanded that we would publish the data with little or no explanations. They did not note any factual problem or anything that can be corrected, they simply wanted it gone. We complied, sort of. We managed to keep the explanations but reduced the historical interpretations. The full paper is available from here. The official publication is here.


Ancient Y-Chromosomal DNA is an invaluable tool for dating and discerning the origins of migration routes and demographic processes that occurred thousands of years ago. Driven by the adoption of high-throughput sequencing and capture enrichment methods in paleogenomics, the number of published ancient genomes has nearly quadrupled within the last three years (2018–2020). Whereas ancient mtDNA haplogroup repositories are available, no similar resource exists for ancient Y-Chromosomal haplogroups. Here, we present aYChr-DB––a comprehensive collection of 1797 ancient Eurasian human Y-Chromosome haplogroups ranging from 44 930 BC to 1945 AD. We include descriptors of age, location, genomic coverage and associated archaeological cultures. We also produced a visualization of ancient Y haplogroup distribution over time. The aYChr-DB database is a valuable resource for population genomic and paleogenomic studies.

Link to the publication.

Freeman, L., Brimacombe, C.S. and Elhaik, E. (2020) aYChr-DB: a database of ancient human Y haplogroups. NAR Genomics and Bioinformatics, 2.

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